OBJECTIVES: Patients in British Columbia who have treatment-resistant psychosis may receive care in a publicly funded academic program where each patient undergoes a multidisciplinary diagnostic evaluation. We describe this assessment process and present findings on a series of patients including a large number with treatment-resistant schizoaffective (SZA) disorder.
METHOD: All patients admitted to the refractory psychosis ward at Riverview Hospital between 1993 and 2010 had failed to respond to at least two previous antipsychotic trials. A psychiatrist, social worker, pharmacist, nurse, general physician, and neuropsychologist evaluated each patient. All available summaries of previous psychiatric admissions were reviewed, and medical, pharmacological, social and behavioural histories were recorded. All information was presented at a case conference and a DSM-IV multiaxial diagnosis reflected agreement between at least two psychiatrists and a psychologist. Symptom ratings included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale.
FINDINGS: Of the 642 patients who were admitted, 92 did not complete treatment (died, were transfered or left against advice) or received a diagnosis other than schizophrenia (SZ), SZA or mood disorder (MD). Consensus diagnosis differed from referral diagnosis in 27% of cases. Of 378 patients referred with SZ, the consensus diagnosis was SZ in 78%, SZA in 15%, MD in 2%, and other in 5%. Of the 145 referred with SZA, the consensus diagnosis was SZA in 63%, SZ in 26%, MD in 3%, and other in 2%. Two thirds of the SZA group were bipolar type. People with confirmed MD or SZA tended to be older and had a longer illness duration, and were more likely to be female, noncaucasian, and married. Functioning and symptom severity in the preceding year and at admission were worse in SZ than SZA patients. PANSS positive scores were greater for SZ and SZA than MD, and PANSS negative scores were more severe in SZ than SZA or MD. Prior depressive episodes were very common in MD (98%) and SZA (89%), but 35% of SZ patients also had a previous depressive episode. Lifetime substance use disorder was found in 63% and recent substance abuse in 35% of patients, and these proportions did not differ across diagnoses. At admission, SZA patients were more likely than SZ patients to have been on a mood stabilizer, but the mean number of antipsychotics and total amount (defined daily dose) did not differ.
CONCLUSION: In a series of patients with treatment-resistant psychosis, the most common diagnosis was SZ, but 29% had SZA. SZA patients were frequently misdiagnosed in the community, and compared to SZ patients, tended to have better baseline functioning, lower symptom severity, were older, and had been ill longer.